Purpose: To determine the level of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and its affecting factors including HbA1c level, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM) and insulin usage.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Central Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June 2015 to August 2016. Thirty-three consecutive vitreous samples harvested from PDR patients underwent vitrectomy. The level of vitreous ICAM-1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Based on the glycemic status, vitreous ICAM-1 level in the uncontrolled glycemic group (21.61 ng/ml) was lower than controlled glycemic group (24.20 ng/ml). Patients with DM for more than 10 years had higher level of vitreous ICAM-1 (26.30 ng/ml). Vitreous ICAM-1 level in DM patients with insulin was higher than those without insulin (27.07 ng/ml vs. 24.17 ng/ml). There was no statistically significant difference between vitreous ICAM-1 levels among all groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: The concentration of vitreous ICAM-1 may not be influenced by glucose control and conventional insulin therapy.