Intermediate-term outcome of placement of Baerveldt glaucoma implant for refractory glaucoma in a Malaysian population

  • Clarissa Ern Hui Fang International Specialist Eye Centre ISEC Malaysia
  • Seng Kheong Fang International Specialist Eye Centre ISEC Malaysia
Keywords: Baerveldt implant, glaucoma, Malaysia, surgical outcomes


Objective: To report baseline characteristics and surgical outcomes of placement of Baerveldt glaucoma implant (BGI) in Asian eyes with considerably elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) despite maximal medical therapy.

Design: Retrospective case series of surgical cases from a single surgeon. Retrospective review of medical records of last clinic visits.

Participants: One hundred and ninety-seven eyes of patients underwent placement of 350-mm2 Baerveldt implant.

Methods: The medical records of consecutive patients who underwent placement of a Baerveldt 350-mm2 glaucoma drainage device (GDD) at the International Specialist Eye Centre from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Baseline characteristics, pre-operative and post-operative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, visual acuity (VA) and complications were recorded. The pre-operative IOP is compared with the IOP at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years.

Measures: The IOP, VA, supplemental medical therapy, complications and success and failures were recorded.

Results: One hundred and ninety-seven patients were followed up at 1-year post-operation, 157 patients at 2 years, 120 at 3 years and 37 at 5 years. The mean baseline IOP of 29.2 ± 10.6 mmHg was significantly reduced at all time points post-operatively. Mean number of glaucoma medications was significantly lower at last follow-up than pre-operatively (1.8 vs. 2.7).

Conclusions: Placement of GDDs effectively reduces IOP without much long-term complication and may be useful in glaucomatous eyes with considerably elevated pre-operative IOP not well controlled with maximal medical therapy in the Asian population.

Author Biographies

Clarissa Ern Hui Fang, International Specialist Eye Centre ISEC Malaysia


Seng Kheong Fang, International Specialist Eye Centre ISEC Malaysia

MBBS (Mal) MS Ophthal (UKM) AM
Consultant Ophthalmologist,
Glaucoma Specialist
Chairman Medical Board
ISEC Healthcare Ltd


Committee Member, Immediate Past President
Malaysian Society of Ophthalmology (MSO)

Honorary Secretary
Asia Pacific Glaucoma Society (APGS)/SEAGIG

Regional Secretary, Council member
Chair of Young Ophthalmologist Standing Committee
Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology (APAO)


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How to Cite
Fang, C. E. H., & Fang, S. K. (2020). Intermediate-term outcome of placement of Baerveldt glaucoma implant for refractory glaucoma in a Malaysian population. Asian Journal of Ophthalmology, 17(1), 108-119.