Purpose: We conducted the study to observe the change in infection patterns with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and correlation of CD4 count with various ocular manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Design: This was a prospective observational cohort study.

Methods: The study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute with established antiretroviral therapy (ART) centre. A total of 240 eyes of 120 ART-naive patients were enrolled. Ocular manifestations of these patients were observed and followed up for six months for any change with HAART.

Results: Out of 240 eyes, 24 showed ocular involvement (10%), of which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microangiopathy and molluscum contagiosum were most common. Out of the four cases of HIV microangiopathy, two cases demonstrated complete resolution after six months of ART. Only one of three cases of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis showed healing after six months of ART.

Conclusions: Vision-threatening CMV retinitis and herpes zoster ophthalmicus can improve if specific treatment is initiated promptly. There is direct correlation between CD4 count, ocular manifestation, and prognosis of the patients; 33.33% of patients showed improvement in ophthalmic manifestations after HAART during a follow-up period of 6 months.