Causes of ocular discomfort in patients of computer vision syndrome coming to a tertiary care centre
Aim: To document causes of ocular discomfort in patients with computer vision syndrome.
Materials and methods: This study included 150 patients with computer vision syndrome who presented in the Eye Out Patient Department of Abbassi Shaheed Hospital. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling technique starting from January 2016 until July 2016. All the patients were above 18 years and working at least three hours per day during the last 1 year. Patients diagnosed with ocular diseases, neurological diseases, using topical or systemic medications, who had ocular surgery and systemic diseases causing dry eyes, who did not give consent, and contact lens users were excluded. Ocular examination was done including refractive errors, slit lamp examination, and tear film breakup time. Data was collected and analysed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.
Results: This study had 150 individuals, of which 115 (76.2%) were males and 35 (23.2%) were females. Mean age was 32.3 ± 8.8 SD. The most frequent complaint was eye strain in 123 (81.5 %) individuals, followed by blurred vision in 94 (62.3%) individuals; the least common was diplopia in 13 (8.6%) individuals. Mean computer daily use was 5.96 ± 2.819 SD hours and duration of computer use was 10.13 ± 6.371 SD years. Tear film breakup time was less than 10 seconds in 63 (42%) individuals. Statistically significant P value 0.003 was seen between tear film breakup time and daily use in hours.
Conclusion: A frequent cause of ocular discomfort in patients with computer vision syndrome is decreased tear film break up time. Another important cause is uncorrected refractive error, the most common of which is myopia, which should be addressed without delay to reduce ocular discomfort.
2. American Optometric Association. The relationship of computer vision syndrome to
musculoskeletal disorders. http://www.aoanet.org/ clincare/environmental-relation.asp.
3. American Optometric Association. The effects of video display terminal use on eye health and
vision. http://www.aoanet.org/clincare/ environmental-effects.asp.
4. Kathy S. Tips for managing computer vision syndrome. AAOHN J. 2005;53:12.
5. Sen A, Richardson S. A study of computer related upper limb discomfort and computer vision
syndrome. J Hum Ergol (Tokyo). 2007;36:45 50.
6. Hayes JR, Sheedy JE, Stelmack JA, Heaney CA. Computer use, symptoms, and quality of life.
Optom Vis Sci. 2007; s84:738 744.
7. Blehm C, Vishnu S, Khattak A, Mitra S, Yee RW. Computer vision syndrome: a review. Surv
8. Ellahia A, Khalilb MS, Akram F. Computer users at risk: Health disorders associated with
prolonged computer use. J Bus Manage Econ. 2011;2(4):171-182.
9. Akinbinu TR, Mashalla YJ. Knowledge of computer vision syndrome among computer users in
the workplace in Abuja, Nigeria. J Physiol Pathophysiol. 2013;4(4):58-63.
10. Chiemeke SC, Akhahowa AE, Ajayi OB. Evaluation of vision-related problems amongst computer
users: a case study of University of Benin, Nigeria. Proceedings of the World Congress on
Engineering. Vol. 1. WCE 2007, July 2-4, 2007 London, U.K.
11. Bali J, Navin N, Thakur BR. Computer vision syndrome: a study of the knowledge, attitudes and
practices in Indian ophthalmologists. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;55:289-293
12. Piccoli B. A critical appraisal of current knowledge and future directions of ergophthalmology:
consensus document of the ICOH Committee on Work and Vision. Ergonomics. 2003;46:384Y406.
13. Shrivastava SR, Bobhate PS. Computer related health problems among software professionals in
Mumbai: A cross sectional study. Int J Health Sci. 2012;1:74.
14. Anshel JR. Visual ergonomics in the workplace. AAOHN J. 2007;55:414-420.
15. Uchino M, Schaumberg DA, Dogru M, et al. Prevalence of dry eye disease among Japanese visual
display terminal users. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(11):1982-1988.
16. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Dana MR. Epidemiology of dry eye syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol.
17. Schaumberg DA, Sullivan DA, Buring JE, Dana MR. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome among US
women. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003; 136:318 326.
18. Glasson MJ, Stapleton F, Keay L, Sweeney D, Willcox MD. Differences in clinical parameters and
tear film of tolerant and intolerant contact lens wearers. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2003; 44:5116
19. Rossignol AM, Morse EP, Summers VM, Pagnotto LD. Visual display terminal use and reported
health symptoms among Massachusetts clerical workers. J Occup Med .1987;29: 112-118.
20. Dinesh J Bhanderi, Sushilkumar Choudhary, Vikas G Doshi, A community-based study of
asthenopia in computer operators. IJO, 2008. 56;1:51-55.
21. Luberto F, Gobba F, Broglia A. Temporary myopia and subjective symptoms in video display
terminal operators. Med Lav 1989; 80:155-163.
22. Parveen N, Hassan SH, Rehman J, Shoukat U. Prevalence of myopia and its associated risk factors
in local medical students. Cell. 2015;334:3887822.
Copyright (c) 2019 Asian Journal of Ophthalmology
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work twelve (12) months after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).